Etymologically the word hórreo comes from the Latin horreum, which designated a building in which fruits of the field were kept, especially the grain. In Asturias the corn, potatoes, onions ... everything that the field provided was kept.
Beyond the existing typologies in the Iberian Peninsula, there are aerial barns on the feet that are, in whole or in part, morphologically related to the hórreo, such as the Norwegian stabur, the Swedish Hebrew, the Polish sol'ek or the Serbian kukuruzniak ... there are numerous examples.
In Asturias there are two types of constructions. The most numerous of them, the hórreo: a square-shaped building that is formed by a wooden chamber, often with a corridor, which is supported on four feet, or pegollos of stone. Breadbasket: it has more than 4 pegollos, they are usually six although there is another important difference. The granaries have gabled roofs that join at the top point, while the bread boxes have roofs with trestle.
The consolidation of the hórreo like typology will take place from the changes resulting from the introduction of the cultivation of maize in the 17th century, especially in Galicia and Asturias.
Currently the granaries serve other tasks, or none in particular. Only on the outside it is appreciated that they still fulfill the function for which they were created, and it is not uncommon to see them adorned with onions, garlic and other less perishable garden products. In this sense, the current refrigerators and freezers have relegated the hórreo to an almost romantic role.
We went on to quote the most important parts of the hórreo -which has many-:
· The pegollos. Normally limestone columns, carved by hand, although the wood shay. They raise the hórreo of the floor to isolate it. They usually have 120 cms. Tall.
· The molars or pegolleras. They are flat limestones, of some 80 cms., That avoid the passage of the rodents to the hórreo.
· The trabes. They are the four brown chestnut beams that form the base of the hórreo.
· The colondres. They are the walls of the hórreo that, generally, are formed by wooden boards criss-crossed in others and in the trabes.
· The tiles They are made of clay.
Asturias has a specific regime of protection of hórreos, paneras and cabazos included in the Law of the Principality of Asturias 1 / 2001, of 6 of March, of Cultural Heritage, in which the construction of granaries detached from the dwelling is forbidden, that those of new invoice must adapt to the materials and traditional constructive and morphological characteristics of these buildings, and establishes various regulations regarding granaries built before 1900, including those that have not been declared of Cultural Interest or included in the Inventory of Cultural Heritage of Asturias.Text: © Ramón Molleda for desdeasturias.com